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Armfield - Complete Fluid Mechanics Laboratory - Fluid Dynamics

The Armfield Hydraulics Bench (F1-10) and accessories have long been the benchmark used in fluid mechanics teaching laboratories. The comprehensive range of equipment can covers all aspects of the teaching of hydraulics in a safe, visual and easy-to-understand way, backed up by first-class teaching materials. This range of equipment has now been extended and reinforced with an integrated range of hydrostatics teaching accessories together with some new hydraulics products. Thus the complete curriculum can be covered with this attractive range of products. The F1-10 is designed as a portable and self-contained service module for the entire range of F1 accessories and a few other accessories as well such as C6MKII and S16. Each accessory is supplied as a complete piece of equipment, needing no additional service items other than the Hydraulics Bench. When coupled to the bench they are immediately ready for use.

Available models

This accessory demonstrates the application of Bernoulli’s Theorem and circumstances where it does not apply.

Key Features

  • Venturi section machined from clear acrylic
  • Seven static pressure tappings plus a total head measurement
  • Flow control valve
  • Manometer board with eight tubes
  • Quick-release fitting for easy connection to Hydraulics Bench
  • Educational software available as an option

This equipment enables the force developed by a jet of water impinging upon a stationary object to be measured.

Key Features

  • Discharge nozzle inside clear acrylic cylinder
  • Four different target plates, which fit onto a balance mechanism
  • Quick-release fitting for easy connection to Hydraulics Bench
  • Educational software available as an option

This equipment permits calibration of two orifices of differing diameter and enables the trajectory of the jet to be plotted.

Key Features

  • Constant head tank with two interchangeable orifices
  • Quick-release fitting for easy connection to Hydraulics Bench
  • Jet trajectory measured and plotted using adjustable pointers
  • Educational software available as an option

The Orifice Discharge accessory enables full analysis of the flow through seven different orifices over a range of flow rates.

Key Features

  • Cylindrical clear acrylic tank with orifice fitted in base
  • Seven interchangeable orifices
  • Pitot tube and wire-on micrometer to measure jet velocity and diameter
  • Quick-release fitting for easy connection to Hydraulics Bench
  • Educational software available as an option

This equipment enables the pressure drop of water passing through a hydraulically smooth circular pipe to be measured in detail and the pipe friction equation to be verified.

Key Features

  • Vertical test pipe with pressure tappings at entry and exit
  • Feed either direct from Hydraulics Bench or from constant head tank
  • Water and mercury manometers supplied as standard
  • Quick-release fitting for easy connection to Hydraulics Bench
  • Educational software available as an option

This item is intended to reproduce the classic experiments conducted by Professor Osborne Reynolds concerning the nature of laminar and turbulent flow.

Key Features

  • Vertical test section fed from header tank with stilling media
  • Bellmouth entry to promote smooth flow into the test section
  • Dye injection system enables flow visualisation
  • Quick-release fitting for easy connection to Hydraulics Bench
  • Educational software available as an option

This accessory is designed to introduce students to three basic types of flow meter.

Key Feature

  • Venturi meter, variable-area meter and orifice plate with flow-control valve
  • Pressure tappings to measure head loss across each meter
  • Supplied with manometer board with eight tubes
  • Quick-release fitting for easy connection to Hydraulics Bench
  • Educational software available as an option

This accessory permits losses in different bends, a sudden contraction, sudden enlargement and a typical control valve to be demonstrated.

Key Features

  • Circuit with four bends of different radii
  • Enlargement, contraction and gate valve, plus flow-control valve
  • Manometer board with 12 tubes plus differential pressure gauge
  • Hand pump for pressurisation of manometers
  • Quick-release fitting for easy connection to Hydraulics Bench
  • Educational software available as an option

This equipment is designed to produce and measure the characteristics of free and forced vortices.

Key Features

  • Cylindrical vessel with four inlet/outlet ports to generate free and forced vortices
  • Three interchangeable orifices and paddle wheel to fit in base of tank
  • Measuring bridge with adjustable pointers and internal caliper to measure vortex dimensions
  • Pitot tubes for estimation of velocities in vortex
  • Quick-release fittings for easy connection to hydraulics bench
  • Educational software available as an option

If flowing water is suddenly brought to rest in a long pipe, a phenomenon known as water hammer occurs, which produces a pressure wave that travels along the pipe. This principle is used in the hydraulic ram to pump water.

Key Features

  • Pump body manufactured from clear acrylic with stainless steel pulse and non-return valves
  • Adjustable acrylic header tank with inlet and outlet hoses
  • Outlet hose with variable head arrangement
  • Quick-release fitting for easy connection to Hydraulics Bench
  • Supplied with weights to load pulse valve
  • Educational software available as an option

This equipment demonstrates to students visually, audibly and numerically the phenomenon of cavitation and it's association with the vapour pressure of a liquid.

Key Features

  • Circular Venturi-shaped test section manufactured from clear acrylic for full visualisation of cavitation
  • Three Bourdon gauges indicate the static pressure upstream of the contraction, inside the throat and downstream of the expansion in the test section
  • Flow-control valves upstream and downstream of the test section enable flow conditions to be optimised for the demonstration of cavitation
  • Quick-release fitting for easy connection to Hydraulics Bench
  • Educational software available as an option

The pitot tube can be moved across the cross-section of the pipe in order to measure the dynamic head profile.

Key Features

  • Pitot tube with scale to determine the position within the pipe diameter
  • Includes pressurised water manometer with scale length 500mm
  • Approximate dimensions 1.0m x 0.55m x 0.23m
  • Set of connecting tubes
  • Instruction manual

The Armfield Fluid Friction Measurements unit provides facilities for the detailed study of fluid friction head losses which occur when an incompressible fluid flows through pipes, fittings and flow metering devices. The unit is designed for use with the Armfield F1-10 Hydraulics bench.

Key Features

  • A unit for the detailed study of fluid friction head losses, which occur when an incompressible fluid flows through pipes, fittings and flow metering devices
  • A substantial floor-standing tubular steel frame supports test circuits comprising:
  • Four smooth-bore pipes of different diameters ranging from 4.5mm ID to 17.2mm ID
  • Artificially roughened pipe
  • 90° bends (large & small radii)
  • 90° elbow
  • 90° mitre
  • 45° elbow, 45° Y, 90° T
  • Sudden enlargement
  • Sudden contraction
  • Gate valve
  • Globe valve
  • Ball valve
  • Inline strainer
  • Perspex venturi
  • Perspex orifice meter
  • Perspex pipe section with a pitot tube & static tapping
  • 38 tapping points
  • All fixed pipes fabricated in stainless steel
  • Suitable for studying Reynolds' numbers from 103 to nearly 105
  • A system of isolating valves, quick release manometer connection valves and self-sealing pressure tappings ensure fast accurate results
  • Data logging accessory available
  • Computer-aided learning program available
  • A user instruction manual provides installation, commissioning and maintenance data, together with student exercises
  • The unit is designed for use with a Hydraulics bench

This free-standing accessory to the F1-10 Hydraulics Bench clearly demonstrates the difference between the phenomena of pipe surge and water hammer and how each is created.

Key Features

  • A freestanding unit designed to demonstrate the phenomena of pipe surge and water hammer when connected to a Hydraulics Bench
  • Includes two separate stainless steel test pipes, both 3m long, constant head tank, slow acting valve, fast acting valve etc
  • A transparent surge shaft (40 mm diameter and 800mm high) with scale allows transient water levels to be observed and timed
  • Electronic sensors used to measure pressure transients at two locations in the water hammer test pipe, one adjacent to fast acting valve and one half way along the test pipe
  • Pressure transients monitored using a PC (not supplied) using a USB connection from the pressure transducers (requires no external electrical supply)
  • Straight metal pipes used, rather than a coiled arrangement, to minimize distortion to the pressure profile

This free-standing accessory to the F1-10 Hydraulics Bench demonstrates the characteristics of flow through different arrangements of pipes and the effect of changes in pipe diameter on the flow through a particular network.

Key Features

  • Specifically designed to allow the setting up of a wide range of different pipe arrays (networks)
  • Pipe network mounted on freestanding support frame for use alongside an F1-10 Hydraulics Bench
  • Clear acrylic test pipes are all 0.70m long with inside diameters of 1x 6mm, 2x 9mm, 1x 10mm, 1x 14mm
  • Includes hand-held electronic pressure meter with self-sealing quick-release connections to the pipe network
  • Flows into and out from the appropriate network can be varied individually

A free-standing accessory to the F1-10 Hydraulic Bench that enables hydraulic phenomena, associated with the flow of water through both open channels and closed conduits, to be set up quickly, easily and visually demonstrated. Includes a unique elevating bed section and models of various hydraulic structures.

Key Features

  • A floor-standing flow channel for use with a hydraulics bench
  • Working section 77mm wide, 150mm high and 1100mm long
  • Can be configured to demonstrate flow in open channels and closed conduits
  • Clear acrylic sides for good visibility of flow patterns created
  • Stilling arrangement at inlet to promote smooth flow into the working section
  • Section of bed can be elevated continuously and locked at the required height
  • Discharge tank incorporates flow-control valve for convenience in setting up
  • Total and static heads indicated on multi-tube manometer connected to Pitot tubes and static tappings at three locations in working section
  • Pitot tubes mounted through bed of channel for ease of priming and height adjustment (can be traversed from floor to roof to measure velocity profile)
  • Transparent scales allow measurement of all important heights and levels
  • Models of hydraulic structures supplied include undershot weir (sluice gate) at the inlet, overshot weir at the outlet, sharp-crested weir, broad-crested weir (also used to create a culvert) and ogee weir
  • Suitable for project work with alternative hydraulic structures (user created)
  • Optional direct reading flow meter to aid setting up of demonstrations
  • Comprehensive instruction manual supplied
  • Biopharmaceutical and Biotechnology
  • Chemical
  • Cosmetics & Personal Care
  • Education & Academics
  • Food & Beverage
  • Oil & Gas
  • Pharmaceutical
  • Powders & Pigments / Coating
ArmfieldThe Armfield Industrial Division designs and manufactures research & development systems, primarily for the food, beverage, dairy, edible oil and pharmaceutical industries. Used by many of the world's leading corporations, Armfield systems enable researchers and product developers to replicate full-scale industrial manufacturing processes on a miniature-scale in the laboratory.
[Armfield, Fluid, Laboratory, Mechanics, Dynamics, Complete]