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S16 configured as an open channel showing flow over an elevated section of the bed with a hydraulic jump forming on the downstream slope. It demonstrates flow through both open channels and closed conduits when coupling this highly visual accessory with the F1-10 Hydraulics Bench. It has a unique elevating bed section and models of various hydraulic structures enable the difficult concepts of critical flow and energy changes to be clearly demonstrated and analysed. It also has a working section large enough for the various flow phenomena to be seen clearly by a group of students – enables a teacher to provide practical demonstrations at the same time as explaining the theory. The demonstrations can be set up quickly and easily, including varying the upstream and downstream flow conditions. It is ideal for student project work – user constructed models of different hydraulic structures can be evaluated.
The flow channel of the S16 Hydraulic Flow Demonstrator is constructed using clear acrylic for visibility and is supported by a floor-standing, metal frame fitted with castors for mobility.
The flow channel consists of an inlet tank with overflow and flow stilling arrangement, a rectangular working section and a discharge tank.
Control valves and adjustable weirs allow the flow conditions to be varied independently at the entry to and exit from the working section. The working section can be flooded to create a closed conduit or operate partially filled as an open channel.
The most important feature of this equipment is the adjustable section of the bed which, together with its transition section (ramps), may be raised and lowered using an external actuator while the water is still flowing. This facility affords a striking demonstration of the significance of channel critical depth. It is also used to vary the cross section for demonstration of the Bernoulli equation in closed conduit flow.
A removable panel in the roof of the working section allows models of typical hydraulic structures to be installed, namely; a sharp-crested weir, broad-crested weir (also used to create a culvert) and ogee weir.
Pitot tubes and tappings connected to a multi-tube manometer allow total and static heads to be measured and compared at three locations in the working section. The height of the Pitot tubes is adjustable allowing the velocity profile to be determined at any position between the bed and the roof of the working section. Transparent scales allow all important heights and levels to be measured throughout the working section.
The S16 Hydraulic Flow Demonstrator is designed to be used in conjunction with an Armfield F1-10 Hydraulics Bench, which provides a recirculating water supply and a volumetric measuring facility. The Flow Demonstrator can be used with an independent water supply of up to 1.6 l/s provided that water discharging from the channel can be intercepted.
An optional direct reading flow meter is available that allows rapid adjustment to the required flow conditions.