Armfield through their CE range of products offer the most compreshensive, diverse and technically current group of products of any manufacturer, bringing both basic principles and complete unit operations to the modern educational laboratory.
The Armfield CEXC family is a range of chemical reactors specifically developed for the teaching and demonstration of chemical reactor capabilities to chemical engineering students. Real chemical reactions take place within the reactors, and Armfield have developed a number of representative reactions which are easy and safe for students to use in the laboratory environment.
The Armfield Stirred Tank Reactors in Series unit is designed to follow the dynamics of the perfectly mixed multi-stage process. Dynamic behaviour can be studied as can multi-stage chemical reaction.
The Armfield Catalytic Reactors unit (CEU) utilises the sugar inversion reaction (Sucrose ➞ Glucose + Fructose) to study the performance of packed-bed chemical and biological catalytic reactors. A colorimetric assay is used to determine the degree of conversion using an optical sensor. Assays may be automated using optional flow injection analysis.
Armfield have yet again introduced a radical alternative to the traditional methods, utilising the benefits of modern computer-compatible microscopy, producing a novel system with a large number of benefits.
Apparatus for investigation of mass transfer and gaseous diffusion has traditionally used a capillary tube in a hot water bath, with a travelling microscope used to measure the rate of diffusion over a period of time. Although capable of giving good results, this type of apparatus was not without its disadvantages, particularly ease of use.
This laboratory equipment has been designed to enable measurement of molecular diffusivities and, in so doing, to familiarise students with the basic notions of mass transfer theory.
The liquid diffusivity apparatus (CERb) relates to an equimolar counter-diffusion process.
The new CEKMkII is designed to facilitate the study of the factors affecting mixing. It uses a combination of visualisation and measurement techniques to enhance understanding.
For further information on the advanced features of the sophisticated Armfield software visit: www.discoverarmfield.co.uk/data/armsoft
The CELMkII is designed to facilitate the study of flow through fixed and fluidised beds of solid particles.
This new improved MkII version has three columns, one for use with water and two for use with air. The separate air and water columns enable the difference between ‘aggregative’ and ‘particulate’ fluidized bed characteristics to be demonstrated. The two air columns enable the effect of different packing material sizes to be demonstrated without having to remove, empty and repack a column.
The MkII version also benefits from full electronic instrumentation and powerful armSOFT data logging software.
Wetted wall columns may be used to determine gas/liquid mass transfer coefficients, essential when calculating the design of absorption towers. Such coefficients form the basis of correlations used to develop packed towers.
CES examines the absorption of oxygen from air into deoxygenated water (prepared by nitrogen sparging). This is an example of liquid-film controlled absorption. The liquid-film mass transfer coefficient can be determined at various mass flow rates of water.
Corrosion represents a significant factor in determining durability and safety of industrial processes. Student engineers need to understand fully the effects of corrosion and how these can be anticipated and prevented.
The Armfield Corrosion Studies Kit is designed to provide an introduction to this topic and allows students to recognise potentially corrosive situations and develop information to permit the selection of adequate materials.
The CEN comprises a variety of items which introduce different aspects of solids behaviour. The characteristics of the flow of solid materials are relevant to many process industries, particularly in handling powders, pellets, crystals and aggregates.
The flow and handling characteristics of granular materials are relevant to many process industries, particularly in the handling of powders, pellets, crystals and aggregates. The CENMkII introduces students to the behaviour of granular materials and is available as three units that can be purchased separately or as a complete set.
CEN-MKII-11: Solids Handling incorporating ball mill and V blender
CEN-MKII-12: Powder Handling incorporating angle of repose cylinder, cylindrical hopper with orifices and pneumatic conveyor with cyclone
CEN-MKII-13: Variable intensity vibratory shaker and sieves