LAL reagents are primarily used to test for endotoxins in injectable pharmaceuticals, biological products, and medical devices. They are also used in renal dialysis centers and a wide range of other applications.
Kinetic Chromogenic Formulation
Chromo-LAL lysate is lyophilized with substrate reagent and buffers. It is optimized for the kinetic chromogenic LAL test method in microplate readers. Chromo-LAL is a buffered, stable and robust lysate, suitable for quantitative testing of a wide range of samples.
The sensitivity for chromogenic assays is determined by the lowest standard concentration on the standard curve used for the assay. The maximum sensitivity of Chromo-LAL is 0.005 EU/mL.
Sample to Lysate Ratio
In the Chromo-LAL test, reconstituted Chromo-LAL reagent is used at a ratio of 1:1 and a volume of 100 µL.
The Chromo-LAL/sample mixture is incubated at 37 ± 1°C in a microplate reader equipped with a 405 nm filter. Software is used to construct the standard curve and calculate the endotoxin concentrations.
Control Standard Endotoxin (CSE) is a widely used standard for endotoxin testing. It is a purified extract of E. coliO113:H10, the same strain used for the United States Pharmacopeia and the European Pharmacopeia reference standard endotoxin (RSE).
CSE is used as an economic alternative to the RSE. CSEs are standardized against the RSE as indicated on the Certificate of Analysis, so that results can be reported in Endotoxin Units (EU) and International Units (IU). CSE can be used for all LAL testing. A 10 ng/vial CSE is made specifically for use with our Pyrochrome chromogenic reagent.
CSE is used to make standard curves and controls when performing the LAL assay. The concentrations used are dependent on the type of assay (e.g., chromogenic, gel-clot, or turbidimetric) and for photometric methods, the detection range required.
Chromogenic Endotoxin Testing Reagents
Pyrochrome is a versatile quantitative reagent that is used to perform kinetic or endpoint assays. It is a sensitive and flexible reagent that can be used for testing in compliance with the USP, EP and JP bacterial endotoxins test chapter. Pyrochrome is offered with either Pyrochrome Buffer or for endotoxin-specific testing, with Glucashield® Buffer. Pyrochrome can be used with the new Pyros Kinetix® Flex tube reader at a 1:1 and economical 4:1 ratio.
Pyrochrome can be used for a wide variety of endotoxin tests, ranging from standard water testing to samples requiring high sensitivity, such as intrathecal products and those requiring high dilutions to overcome interference.
It is also offered in a diazo kit for endpoint tests. (The diazo reagents shift the absorption spectrum making it especially useful for testing samples with color interference.)
The sensitivity for chromogenic assays is determined by the lowest standard concentration on the standard curve used for the assay. The maximum sensitivity of Pyrochrome is 0.001 EU/mL when run in Pyros Kinetix Flex tube reader or incubating microplate reader with Glucashield Buffer.
Sample to Lysate Ratio
In the Pyros Kinetix Flex tube reader, Pyrochrome can be used at an economical ratio of 4:1 using 50 µL of reagent per well or at 1:1 using 100 µL/well. In a microplate reader, the reagent is used at a ratio of 1:1 and a volume of 50 µL/well (60 tests/vial) or 100 µL/well (30 tests/vial).
The Pyrochrome/sample mixture is incubated at 37±1°C and read in a microplate reader equipped with a 405–410 nm filter or 540–550 nm filter for diazo method. The time of incubation is dependent on the lowest standard concentration in the standard curve. Software is used to construct the standard curve and calculate the endotoxin concentrations.
Rapid Endotoxin Detection*
The Pyrosate kit is developed as an easy-to-use LAL gel-clot test. The assay does not require special training or laboratory supplies. The step-by-step illustrated instructions allow the user to perform assays within minutes. The Pyrosate kit provides rapid results and is especially convenient for research, testing water and dialysate.
The Pyrosate kit is available in sensitivities of 0.03 EU/mL, 0.125 EU/mL and 0.25 EU/mL. The test may be as short as 30 minutes, depending on the sensitivity.
The Pyrosate kit is a rapid gel-clot test that contains a 2λ* endotoxin tube (PPC) matched to the sample (SPL) tube for each sensitivity. This feature is unique to the Pyrosate assay and ensures the validity of the test. The endotoxin tube (PPC) assures that the sample does not interfere with the test, ruling out false negatives. Pyrosate is formulated to eliminate false positives due to (1→3)-ß-D-glucans. This endotoxin specific reagent does not require additional blocking buffers.
*λ (lambda) is the lowest concentration of endotoxin to cause a positive test result under standard conditions.
Pyrotell® lysate was the first LAL gel-clot reagent licensed by the US FDA. It is easy to use and is available in both economical multi-test vials and convenient Single Test Vials (STV's). Pyrotell lysate is a robust reagent, producing firm, easily read clots and is resistant to interfering substances. The gel-clot test does not require sophisticated capital equipment and software and is the simplest LAL test to implement.
Pyrotell lysate is available in multiple sensitivities: 0.03 EU/mL; 0.06 EU/mL; 0.125 EU/mL; 0.25 EU/mL.
Sample to Lysate Ratio
For standard use, a 1:1 mixture of Pyrotell lysate to sample is used.
For 2 mL and 5 mL multi-test vials, 100 µL of lysate is mixed with 100 µL of sample in a reaction tube. For single test vials 200 µL of sample is added to the vial, which serves as a reaction tube. Test tubes are incubated at 37°C for 60 minutes ± 2 minutes. A positive test is indicated if the clot remains solid after the inversion of the test tube.
Pyrotell®-T lysate is used to quantify endotoxin in kinetic turbidimetric tests. Pyrotell®-T lysate can be used with the Pyros Kinetix® Flex tube reader and also incubating microplate readers. When used with the Pyros Kinetix® Flex tube reader, Pyrotell®-T gives a highly economic, flexible and sensitive LAL assay.
It can be used for a wide variety of endotoxin tests, ranging from standard water testing to samples requiring high sensitivity, such as intrathecal products and those requiring high dilutions to overcome interference.
When used in a Pyros Kinetix® Flex tube reader, the maximum sensitivity is 0.001 EU/mL, which is 5 times more sensitive than any other LAL assays. The unique formulation of Pyrotell®-T lysate allows a wide range of standard curves to be used, giving the user flexibility, speed, and ease in performing assays. When used in a microplate reader, the maximum sensitivity is 0.005 EU/mL.
Sample to Lysate Ratio
The ratio of sample: LAL is determined by personal preference and sample chemistry (interference patterns). A sample: LAL ratio for Pyrotell®-T of 1:1 or 4:1 can be used according to user choice (and validation requirements).
The sample and lysate are added to test tubes or a microplate and incubated at 37°C. The time of incubation is dependent on the lowest standard concentration in the standard curve. Software is used to construct the standard curve and calculate the endotoxin concentrations.