The TH range is designed to introduce students to the fundamental principles of thermodynamics. Exploring basic concepts such as temperature and pressure measurement, plus an introduction to the relationships between these fundamentals; first and second low, the principles of reversibility, entropy, enthalpy etc. The equipment enables the student to gain a true understanding of these difficult concepts, which are so important in all aspects of engineering.
The TH1 Armfield Temperature Measurement and Calibration unit is designed to introduce students to temperature and how different techniques can be employed to measure this variable.
The thermometric properties and characteristics of temperature measuring devices can be investigated and the devices calibrated using precisely generated fixed points and an accurate reference thermometer.
The TH2 Armfield Pressure Measurement and Calibration Unit has been designed to introduce students to the physical science of pressure and how different techniques can be employed to measure this variable.
Different fixed pressures are generated using a simple Deadweight Pressure Calibrator for the purpose of calibrating the measuring devices. A Bourdon-type pressure gauge and electronic type pressure sensor are connected to the calibrator to enable their characteristics, including accuracy and linearity, to be determined.
The TH3 Armfield Saturation Pressure Apparatus has been designed to introduce students to how the temperature of water behaves at its boiling point with variation in the absolute pressure.
The TH3 offers all the features of a Marcet Boiler and adds the capability of determining the quality of wet steam, thus enhancing the understanding of the underlying thermodynamic principle.
Saturation curves can be obtained by the student and compared with published steam tables. The quality of steam exiting the apparatus can be determined using a throttling calorimeter connected at the point of discharge.
Recycle is a simple phenomenon, which occurs in many aspects of everyday life, but is also a concept that can lead to confusion in engineering applications when combined with other principles such as mass / energy balances and the use of the steady flow energy equation.
The Armfield Recycle Loops apparatus has been designed to demonstrate clearly, both visually and experimentally, what recycle is and to enable mass and energy balances to be performed under steady state and unsteady state conditions. The application modelled is typical of a heating arrangement in the chemical, food or pharmaceutical industries whereby the temperature of a product is raised or lowered offline by recirculating some of the product through a heat exchanger.
The practical training exercises are appropriate to heat transfer and thermodynamics courses and the training of technicians and engineers in those disciplines.
The Armfield Expansion Processes of a Perfect Gas apparatus has been designed to introduce students to a range of basic thermodynamic processes using air as the working fluid.