In a light microscope, visible light passes through the specimen and is bent through the lens system, allowing the user to see a magnified image. A benefit of light microscopy is that it can often be performed on living cells, so it’s possible to watch cells carrying out their normal behaviors under the microscope.
Student lab microscopes tend to be brightfield microscopes, meaning that visible light is passed through the sample and used to form an image directly, without any modifications. Slightly more sophisticated forms of light microscopy use optical tricks to enhance contrast, making details of cells and tissues easier to see.
Another type of light microscopy is fluorescence microscopy, which is used to image samples that fluoresce (absorb one wavelength of light and emit another). Light of one wavelength is used to excite the fluorescent molecules, and the light of a different wavelength that they emit is collected and used to form a picture. In most cases, the part of a cell or tissue that we want to look at isn't naturally fluorescent, and instead must be labeled with a fluorescent dye or tag before it goes on the microscope.
Modular imaging solutions help suppliers and device manufacturers achieve fast and precise inspection and analysis for wafer processing, IC packaging, IC assembly, and testing. Proof of conformity to the defined specifications during semiconductor device manufacturing is critical for reliability. To demonstrate the expected levels for cleanliness and minimal presence of defects have been met to produce excellent quality semiconductor devices, accurate documentation is indispensable. However, the demand for the development of cutting-edge, higher-performance technology is unrelenting, thus, it is expected that these imaging systems contribute to R&D as well.
Polarized light microscopy (PLM) is a technique commonly used in forensic science in identifying and characterizing trace evidence found at crime scenes, such as fibers, hairs, paints, and glass fragments. PLM is useful for the quick screening of materials; and based on the properties observed using PLM, unknown samples can be easily identified and compared to other materials. In addition, microscopy can be paired with other types of instrumentation to aid in the identification and comparison processes.
|Light Microscopes||DNA Biology||Hairs & Fibers||Ground Traces||Paint||Toxicology||Physics / Cause of Fire|
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|DM2700M: Manual microscope for reflected-and transmitted light||+||+||+||+||+||+|
|DM4M: Semi motorized intstrument with direct calibration and high reproducibility||+||+||+||+||+||+|
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To manage the daily work of a cell culture lab a microscope is needed. This microscope has to have an inverse configuration. Such an inverted microscope features the objective below and the condenser above the specimen, enabling a near enough proximity of the objective to the cells and a large working distance above.
Due to the very low intrinsic contrast of animal cells, a cell culture microscope has to deliver contrast methods such as phase contrast. DIC (Differential Interference Contrast) doesn’t help here, since it can’t be applied together with the plastic vessels used in cell culture. A very good alternative for DIC is IMC (Integrated Modulation Contrast), which works with plastic containers and in addition, doesn’t need special objectives or prisms.
A very common cell biological approach is to transfect cells with fluorescent markers for subsequent investigation with a research microscope. If you are dealing with fluorescent proteins, also your cell culture microscope needs a fluorescence option e.g. to control transfection efficiency.
For meaningful documentation and standardization, the microscope should feature a digital camera and ideally the ability to record and digest the acquired data. As space is an issue in cell culture labs, a cell culture microscope shouldn’t be too big e.g. to fit under a hood. Moreover, recent trends demand microscopes that are small and robust enough to be used even inside an incubator.
When your research is centered on understanding the cellular basis of human health and disease, it is critical to investigate the cells of interest in spatiotemporal and molecular detail. Consequently, microscopy is an ever-important tool in cell biology, allowing you to study your specimens in detail within their structural environment, as well as, analyze cellular organelles and macromolecules. Cell biology imaging is done with a range of light and electron microscopes.
The challenges faced when using microscopy for cell biology research vary, as the imaging of inter-and intra-cellular events requires a range of samples that vary in size and complexity. Imaging of these events needs to be performed from the nanometer to the millimeter scale.
Additionally, the study of cells under the microscope is further influenced by whether they are live or fixed samples, as these cases pose different imaging challenges. One challenge is how to capture fast dynamic events with the right resolution. Another one, for any cellular structures or events that do not produce a natural contrast during imaging, is choosing the right fluorescent proteins, antibodies, or nucleic acid probes to use as tags for specific proteins, DNAs, and RNAs in the cell to be viewed with fluorescence microscopy.
Analysis of specimens for pathology sometimes requires long hours working with a microscope. The result for the user may be physical discomfort and strain that can lead to reduced efficiency and the risk of less consistent analysis.
Pathologists can benefit from a solution that allows them to maintain a comfortable position having reduced strain while working with a microscope. Such a solution can help achieve improved efficiency for pathological diagnoses.
Anatomic pathology concerns the study of the effects of disease on the body and its organs. Two specific subfields of pathology which often require microscopic examination are:
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