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Phase Identification

Phase identification is the most important application of X-ray diffraction (XRD). It is not only applied on powder samples but also on polycrystalline solids, suspensions, and thin films. XRD analysis, by way of the study of the crystal structure, is a powerful nondestructive technique for characterizing crystalline materials. While most other analytical techniques provide elemental or molecular information from a sample, XRD is unique in providing a wide variety of information on structures, crystalline phases, preferred crystal orientations (texture), and other structural parameters such as crystallite size, percent crystallinity, strain, stress, and crystal defects.

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Materials

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Instruments

A crystal structure is simply, how the atoms, ions, or molecules aligned themselves in each material. However, a materials characteristic is highly dependent on the crystal structure itself. One simple example are diamond and graphite. While both are made up entirely of carbon atoms; in a diamond, the carbon atoms are arranged tetrahedrally (each atom is attached to four other carbon atoms) and carbon atoms in graphite is bonded to three other carbon atoms in hexagons shape. Diamond is the hardest material known and has extraordinary strength and durability and gives diamond a higher density than graphite.

XRD analysis, by way of the study of the crystal structure, is a powerful nondestructive technique for characterizing crystalline materials. While most other analytical techniques provide elemental or molecular information from a sample, XRD is unique in providing a wide variety of information on structures, crystalline phases, preferred crystal orientations (texture), and other structural parameters such as crystallite size, percent crystallinity, strain, stress, and crystal defects. 

An example of industrial application is identifying TiO2 phases of anatase or rutile, in which one phase provides more UV protection against the other and hence a critical parameter to be checked during the production of personal care products.

Our experts here in DKSH analytical services, provides expertise in many different applications including:

  • New materials research and development
  • Routine materials determination and characterization. 
  • Materials: Phase Composition, Crystallite size and shape, Crystallinity and amorphous 
  • Polymers and Composites: Crystalline form, Crystallinity, Crystalline Perfection, Orientation
  • Pharmaceuticals and Organics: Polymorphs, Crystallinity,

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